2018年5月CATTI二、三级笔译实务真题整理

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二级笔译实务真题

英译汉

Passage 1

Near Cambodia's Temple Ruins, a Devotion to Learning

Millions of tourists come here every year to visit the ancient ruins of Angkor Wat, an influx that has helped transform what once resembled a small, laid-back village into a thriving and cosmopolitan town with thumping nightlife and more than 10,000 hotel rooms.

But?the explosion of the tourism industry here has also done something less predictable. Siem Reap, which had no universities a decade ago, is now Cambodia’s second-largest hub for higher education, after the capital, Phnom Penh.

The?sons and daughters of impoverished rice farmers flock here to work as tour guides, receptionists, bartenders and waitresses. When their shifts are over, they study finance, English and accounting.

The?establishment of five private universities here is helping to transform the work force in this part of Cambodia. Employers say that English proficiency is rising and that workers who attend universities stand out for their ability to express themselves and make decisions.?A generation of students who would otherwise have had little hope to study beyond high school are enduring grueling schedules to get a degree and pursue their dreams.

Khim?Borin, a 26-year-old tour guide by day and law student by night, says he wants to become a lawyer. But he sometimes has trouble staying awake in class during the high tourist season, when he spends hours scaling vertiginous temple steps and baking in the tropical sun.

But?the symbiosis of work and study here came together without any master plan.

It?was driven largely by supply and demand: universities opened to cater to the dreams of Cambodia’s youth — and offered flexible hours in sync with the rhythms of the tourist industry.

After graduation, students who work and study at the same time often have an edge over fresh graduates who have never worked before, for whom starting a career can be difficult, Ms. Chan and others say.?University students are “more communicative,” she said. “If they don’t like something, they speak out.”

Ms.?Chan and others say they are lucky that Angkor’s temples have proved so popular with tourists. If it were not for the sandstone structures nestled in the jungles, Siem Reap would probably have remained a backwater. Last year, 3.3 million tourists visited Siem Reap, half of them foreigners, according to the Cambodian Ministry of Tourism.

Passage 2

India's Education Dream Risks Remaining Just That

At?one of the better colleges in India’s capital, there is just one large room for 140 faculty members to sit and have a cup of tea or grade papers. “If even half show up, there aren’t enough chairs,” said Ghazala Amin, a history professor there. “There is no other place to work. In this situation, how do you expect teachers to work?”

The?lack of amenities for faculty members is not the only issue. After 30 years at Jesus and Mary College, which is one of dozens administered by the University of Delhi, Ms. Amin makes the equivalent of $22,000 a year — less than half of what some of her better students will make in their first jobs. New opportunities offer not just more money for graduates but also mobility and flexibility, which are virtually unheard of for faculty at most of India’s colleges and universities.

All?this means that India is facing a severe shortage of faculty members. But it is not just low pay and lack of facilities that are being blamed.?According to a government report published last year, a massive expansion in higher education combined with a poor supply of Ph.D.’s, delays in recruitment and the lack of incentives to attract and nurture talent has led to a situation in which 40 percent of existing faculty positions remain vacant. The report’s authors, mostly academics, found that if the shortfall is calculated using the class size recommended by the government, this figure jumps to 54 percent.

Experts?say this is the clearest sign that India will fail to meet the goal set by the education minister, who has pledged to more than double the size of the country’s higher education system by 2020. They say that while the ambition is laudable, the absence of a long-term strategy to develop faculty will ensure that India’s education dream remains just that.

Mr. Balakrishnan of India Institute of Technology in Delhi, meanwhile, was more optimistic. He felt India could enroll as much as 25 percent of eligible students in colleges and universities — about twice the current figure — by 2020.?“Tangible changes are happening,” he said. “The debate that has happened in the last few years has taken people out of their comfort zones. There is more consensus across the board that we need to scale quality education.”

汉译英

Passage 1

2000多年前,亚欧大陆上勤劳勇敢的人民,探索出多条连接亚欧非几大文明的贸易和人文交流通路,后人将其统称为“丝绸之路”。千百年来,“和平合作、开放包容、互利共赢”的丝绸之路精神薪火相传,极大地促进了沿线各国繁荣发展。

进入21世纪,面对复苏乏力的全球经济形势,纷繁复杂的国际和地区局面,传承和弘扬丝绸之路精神更显重要。“一带一路”建设是一项系统工程,要坚持共商、共建、共享原则,积极推进沿线国家发展战略的相互对接。“一带一路”致力于亚欧非大陆及附近海洋的互联互通,建立和加强沿线各国互联互通伙伴关系,构建全方位、多层次互联互通网络,实现沿线各国多元、自主、平衡、可持续的发展。“一带一路”的互联互通项目将发掘区域内市场的潜力,促进投资和消费,创造需求和就业,增进沿线各国人民的人文交流。

Passage 2

2016年,中国的一个三口之家的碳排放量平均为2.7吨。目前,这个数字已升至3.5吨。而在北京、上海、广州等大城市,每个家庭的平均碳排放量已接近10吨。碳汇(Carbon Sink)主要是指森林吸收并储存二氧化碳的能力。森林是陆地生态系统中最大的碳汇库。在降低大气中温室气体浓度、减缓全球气候变暖中具有十分重要的独特作用。

据统计数字,每人每年只需要种3棵树,就可以吸收个人当年排放的二氧化碳。目前中国正在开展公众可参加的碳汇林项目,如将建四川大熊猫栖息地的熊猫碳汇林项目等。作为碳排放大户的一些企业也已行动起来,先后在全国十多个省区建碳汇林60多万公顷。中国将推广购买碳汇、种植碳汇林等行动,加快植树造林步伐,增加森林碳汇功能。


三级笔译实务真题

英译汉

Passage 1

Improved?human well-being?is one of the?greatest triumphs?of the modern era.?The age of plenty has also led to an?unexpected global health crisis:two billionpeople?are either overweight or obese.?Developed countries have been especially?susceptible to?unhealthy weight gain.However, developing countries are now facing a similar crisis.?Obesity rates have peaked in high income countries but are?accelerating?elsewhere.?The?combined findings?of the World Health Organisation and the World Bank showed that in 2016 Asia was home to half the world’s overweight children. One quarter were in Africa.?Residents of developing nation cities are increasingly susceptible to obesity.?According to India’s National Institute of Nutrition,?over?a quarter of urban-dwelling men and nearly half of women?are overweight.

The?majority of the world’s future urbanisation is projected to occur in developing countries, particularly in?Asia and Africa.?This crisis will test the political resolve of governments?that have historically focused on ending hunger.?These governments must understand that the factors making cities convenient and productive also make their residents prone to obesity. Urbanites enjoy a variety of food. Additionally, international fast food chains are flourishing in developing countries.?The health risks of such diets?are compounded bythe?sedentary lifestyles?of urban dwellers.?People’s leisure time is also beingoccupied by television, movies, and video games in the growing number of households.The alarming implication of these trends?is that developing countries may become sick before they get rich.?That sickness may, in turn, cripple health systems.The yearly health care costs in Southeast Asia of obesity-related complications like diabetes and cardiovascular disease are already as high as US $10 billion. Such diseases are an added burden on countries already struggling to manage primary health care needs.Policies related to taxation, urban design, education and awareness and the promotion of localised food systems?may help control obesity at a lower cost than eventual medical treatment for an ageing and increasingly overweight population.Some governments have already experimented with direct interventions to control obesity, such as taxation on unhealthy foods and drinks.?The US?pioneered?the soda tax movement.?Thailand, Brunei, and Singapore have adopted similar measures. South Africa?is likely to introduce a sugar tax beginning in April 2018.The city of Berkeley in California recognizes that taxes alone are not enough to address obesity.?Proceeds?from the city’s sugar tax?are used?to support child nutrition and community health programmes.?This underscores the importance of education and awareness.

There?is also promise in initiatives. Urban design holds significant power to reshape lifestyle patterns and public health. Improving the attractiveness of public space can draw?residents out of their cars and living rooms.?A recent?study?of urban neighbourhoods in Shanghai and Hangzhou found that middle-income residents living in less walkable neighbourhoods had significantly higher Body Mass Indices than both richer and poorer residents who lived in walkable neighbourhoods in urban China.Finally, healthier lifestyles begin in grocery store aisles. Governments should encourage tighter connections between agricultural production systems, urban grocers and food vendors.?Such?initiatives?can also help urban residents better understand the mechanics of food sourcing.?This raises awareness about the relationship between natural foods and healthy lifestyles.?Combining controls on unhealthy foods with policies that incentivise healthy eating and active lifestyles constitute a promising response to rising obesity rates.?Improving public health is an important policy developing countries should take from both an economic and social point of view.?To quote the recent Global Nutrition Report, reducing obesity will boost global development.

汉译英

Passage 1

煤炭是地球上储量最为丰富的能源,但反对使用煤炭的声浪日益高涨。煤炭巨大的碳排放量引起气候变化,从而引起公众的担忧。煤炭与其他能源相比,竞争力已经有所下降了。以美国为例,页岩气的出现造成部分出煤量因价格过高而被挤出市场。美国去年煤炭需求接近9.2亿吨。由于天然气价格下跌,今年美国煤炭需求将减少6000万到8000万吨。

数据显示,煤炭满足了全球大约30%的能源需求,提供40%以上的电力。在人口第一和第二大国中国和印度,煤炭所满足的能源需求比例甚至达到70%左右。中国的煤炭消费量在去年已经下滑,煤炭进口下降了11%,这是十年来的首次下降。中国经济增速已经放缓,同时也做出极大努力削减煤炭使用以减少煤炭污染。由于燃煤发电厂没有满负荷运行,再加上煤炭供应充足,造成国际煤炭价格压低。煤出口价格从去年的峰值下跌了约60%。

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