读诗赏译 | 卧看牵牛织女星之七大名家译本大盘点

更多精彩,请关注微信公众号:田间小站

说起七夕,不得不提这首唐代诗人杜牧所作的《秋夕》七绝(seven-character quatrain)。

秋夕
(唐)杜牧
银烛秋光冷画屏,轻罗小扇扑流萤。
天阶夜色凉如水,卧看牵牛织女星。

在一个秋天的晚上,银白色的蜡烛发出微弱的光,给屏风上的图画添了几分暗淡而幽冷的色调,手拿着小罗扇扑打萤火虫。夜色里的石阶清凉如冷水,静坐寝宫凝视牛郎织女星。

这首诗构思巧妙,语言质朴流畅,感情蕴藉婉约,艺术感染力很强。从形式和结构上看,全诗描物写景与叙事抒情相结合,呈现出灵动之姿,颇动人心魄。前者旨在为后者营造氛围,后者意在为前者规范意蕴,两者相互衬托融为一体。

根据在网上搜集到的七个名家译本,各位译者英译文化负载词采用的策略不尽相同,大体上归为直译、意译、增译、添加附注等。值得一提的是,几位译者在英译“秋夕”“扑流萤”“天阶夜色凉如水”“牵牛织女星”时,译文各有千秋。

对于秋夕两字,各位译者分别是这样表述的:

  1. 许渊冲、许明:The Double Seventh Night
    [Double Seventh: the seventh day of seventh lunar month, the Double Seventh Festival]
  2. 徐忠杰:An Autumn Night
  3. 张廷琛、Bruce M. Wilson:An Autumn Evening
  4. 任治稷、余正:Autumn Night*
  5. 刘克璋:An Autumn Night
  6. 王大濂:An Autumn Night
  7. 王福林:On an Autumn Night

对于“扑流萤”一词,各位译者分别是这样表述的:

  1. 许渊冲、许明:catch flitting firefly
    [fliting一词精准形象地展现萤火虫轻盈飞舞的形态]
  2. 徐忠杰:swat fireflies
    [swat指“重拍、猛击、用力击出”,略感用力过猛]
  3. 张廷琛、Bruce M. Wilson:scatter the drifting fireflies
    [scatter传神地展现出流萤向四周散开的状态]
  4. 任治稷、余正:swat streaking glow-worms
    [选词方面发光虫(glow-worms)显然比fireflies缺失了一定的美感]
  5. 刘克璋:swat fireflies
  6. 王大濂:pat the fireflies
    [友善地轻拍]
  7. 王福林:beat the flying fireflies
    [此处beat同swat一样略感用力过猛]

对于天阶夜色凉如水境界的演绎,各位译者分别是这样表述的:

  1. 许渊冲、许明:The steps seem steeped in water when cold grows the night.
    [随着夜色逐渐加深,反衬出宫女更加凄凉的心境,更加生动地反映了人物的内心世界]
  2. 徐忠杰:Scarcely visible, as twilight is near; Cold as water, the stone pavements appear.
    [将石阶拟人化,appear是过程,pavements是行为者]
  3. 张廷琛、Bruce M. Wilson:As chill waters of the night envelop the palace steps,
    [Envelop生动地描绘出水的形态,动静结合]
  4. 任治稷、余正:Palace steps at night cold as water,
    [将一幅完整的画面传达给读者,译文整体上和原诗过程对等]
  5. 刘克璋:As the shades of night on palace stone-steps are as cool as water,
  6. 王大濂:In night’s dim light, the marble steps look like a coldish bay;
  7. 王福林:Though the white marble steps of the palace are as cool as the water at night

对于牵牛织女星,各位译者分别是这样表述的:

  1. 许渊冲、许明:Two stars in love
  2. 徐忠杰:Cowherd and his lassie
    [Lassie/lass指少女、女孩、年轻女子]
  3. 张廷琛、Bruce M. Wilson:The Herdsman and Weaver Maid**
  4. 任治稷、余正:Cowherd and Weaving Girl**
  5. 刘克璋:The mythical lovers: Altair and Vega
    [天琴座的织女星(Vega)、天鹰座的牛郎星(Altair)]
  6. 王大濂:Two longing stars*
    [添加了附注the Weaver and the Cowherd separated by the Milky Way]
  7. 王福林:Altair and Vega

下面我们一起来看看几位名家的全诗翻译吧!

一、许渊冲、许明?英译《秋夕》

The Double Seventh Night

Du Mu

Autumn has chilled the painted screen in silver moonlight;
A silken fan is used to catch flitting firefly.
The steps seem steeped in water when cold grows the night.
She lies to watch two stars in love meet in the sky.

二、徐忠杰英译《秋夕》

An Autumn Night

Du Mu

On the pictured screen, a candle throws its light.
One sense the chill of autumn, though it be slight.
A lassie, holding in her hand, a light silken fan,
Goes about swatting fireflies as many as she can.

Scarcely visible, as twilight is near,
Cold as water, the stone pavements appear.
She lies down, as evening scenes into nocturne pass,
Watching the legendary stars “Cowherd and his lass”.

三、张廷琛、Bruce M. Wilson英译《秋夕》

An Autumn Evening

Du Mu

In the flickering autumn candlelight, the painted screen grows cold.
With a small fan of silk gauze*, she scatters the drifting fireflies.
As chill waters of the night envelop the palace steps,
She sits to watch the Herdsman and Weaver Maid**.

* The poem portrays an imperial concubine fallen from favor. Her situation is thus analogous to that of the “small fan of silk gauze” discarded at summer’s end.

** Herdsman…Weaver Maid: Stars positioned south and north of the Milky Way. In popular legend, they were lovers who meet only once a year on the seventh day of the seventh month, when magpies build a bridge for them to cross the “River of Heaven”.

四、任治稷、余正英译《秋夕》

Autumn Night*

Du Mu

Silver candle, autumn light and cold picture screen,
Small fan of light silk swatting streaking glow-worms.
Palace steps at night cold as water,
Where she sits watching Cowherd and Weaving Girl**.

* The subject of this poem is a palace maid. In ancient China, once a girl was chosen to be a maid in the imperial palace, she became a virtual prisoner for life, no freedom to move around, nor to marry.

** Cowherd and Weaving Girl are lovers in Chinese mythology, identified with stars Altair and Vega. They are separated by the Milky Way and permitted to see each other only once a year on the 7th?day of July when the magpies form a bridge where the star-crossed lovers meet at the halfway point.

五、刘克璋英译《秋夕》

An Autumn Night

Du Mu

Autumn moon and a candle cast cold lights on painted screen dimly,
A forsaken maid of honor swats fireflies with silk fan lonely.
As the shades of night on palace stone-steps are as cool as water,
She sits down, watching the mythical lovers: Altair and Vega.

六、王大濂英译《秋夕》

An Autumn Night

Du Mu

The autumn’s silver candlelight shows off the chilly screen;
Patting the fireflies with a silken fan a maiden’s seen.
In night’s dim light, the marble steps look like a coldish bay;
She sits to watch two longing stars* there by the Milky Way.

* Two longing stars: They refer to the Weaver and the Cowherd who were commonly believed to be two stars very much in love with each other but separated by the Milky Way.

七、王福林英译《秋夕》

On an Autumn Night

Du Mu

The painted screen is made to look chill by the silvery candle with autumn light,
The young palace maid uses a small gauze fan to beat the flying fireflies.
Though the white marble steps of the palace are as cool as the water at night,
Yet she lies down to look up at the Altair and the Vega in the skies.

以上7个译文版本,你最喜欢哪个呢?

打赏

微信赞赏支付宝赞赏