Music of a Failing State
国家将亡时的音乐，后多指颓靡荒淫的音乐。儒家认为，一个国家即将 灭亡时，音乐多颓靡荒淫；而生活于社会底层的民众却困苦不堪，其音乐、 诗歌等文艺作品一定充满了悲哀忧思。统治者若还不警醒，亡国也就为期不远了。
This term refers to the music of a state that is about to disintegrate. Later, it also refers to decadent and immoral music. The Confucian view was that music of a state on the verge of collapse tended to be dejected and demoralizing. As the downtrodden people endured immense suffering, their music and poetry were invariably full of sorrow and bitterness. If the ruler failed to wake up to the reality, the fall of his state was imminent.
- 亡国之音哀以思，其民困。 （《礼记?乐记》）） （国家将亡时的音乐充满了悲哀忧思，这是因为民众困苦不堪的缘故。）
The music of a state about to perish is filled with sadness, showing its people are in dire distress.? (The Book of Rites)
- 郑卫之音，乱世之音也，比于慢矣。桑间濮上之音，亡国之音也。其政散，其民流，诬上行私而不可止也。 (《礼记?乐记》） （郑国和卫国的音乐，就是动乱时代的音乐，近乎轻慢无节制了。濮水岸边 的桑间所流行的音乐，属于国家将亡时的音乐。它们反映出时政极端混乱， 民众流离失所，臣下欺瞒君上、图谋私利而不可制止。）
The music of the states of Zheng and Wei was the music of an age of disorder, bordering on wantonness. The music of Sangjian on the Pushui River was typical of a failing state. The government was dysfunctional, the people were displaced, yet officials cheated on the ruler and pursued selfish gains with no one to stop them.? (The Book of Rites)