那些年那些诗 | Paradise?Lost 失乐园

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约翰·弥尔顿(John?Milton),出生于一个富裕的清教徒家庭,在剑桥大学求学时和毕业后一个时期,钻研古代和文艺复兴时期文学,深受人文主义思想熏陶。1638年他旅行意大利,访问过关在狱里的伽利略,并和意大利的文人学者交往。

1639年,英国革命形势紧张,他回国参加反对国王和国教的斗争。他因基佬过度,双目失明,但仍坚持斗争。王朝复辟后,他受到迫害,著作被禁毁,生活极其窘迫。就在这个时期,他完成了散步杰作;《失乐园》,《复乐园》和《力士参孙》。

《失乐园》以史诗一般的磅礴气势揭示了认得原罪与堕落。始终叛逆之神撒旦,因为反抗上帝的权威被打入地狱,却好不屈服,为复仇寻至伊甸园。亚当与夏娃受被撒旦附身的蛇的引诱,偷吃了上帝明令禁吃的知识树上的果子。最终,撒旦及其同伙遭到惩罚全变成了蛇,亚当与夏娃被逐出了伊甸园。该诗体现了诗人追求自由的崇高精神,是世界文学史,思想史上的一部极重要的作品!

Paradise?Lost
失乐园

John?Milton
约翰·弥尔顿

Nine?times?the?space?that?measures?day?and?night
依照人间的计算,大约九天九夜,

To?mortal?men,?he?with?his?horrid?crew
他和他那一伙可怕的徒众

Lay?vanquished,?rolling?in?the?fiery?gulf
沉沦辗转在烈火的深渊中

Confounded?though?immortal:?But?his?doom
虽属不死之身,却象死者一样横陈;

Reserved?him?to?more?wrath;?for?now?the?thought
但这个刑罚反激起他更大的忿怒,

Both?of?lost?happiness?and?lasting?pain
既失去了幸福,又受无尽痛苦的煎熬。

Torments him; round he throws his baleful?eyes
他抬起忧虑的双眼,环视周遭,

That?witnessed?huge?affliction?and?dismay
摆在眼前的是莫大的隐忧和烦恼,

Mixed?with?obdurate?pride?and?steadfast?hate:
顽固的傲气和难消的憎恨交织着。

At?once?as?far?as?angels?ken?he?views
霎时间,他竭尽天使的目力,望断

The?dismal?situation?waste?and?wild,
际涯,但见被风弥漫,浩渺无限,

A?dungeon?horrible,?on?all?sides?round
四面八方围着他的是个可怕的地牢,

As?one?great?furnace?flamed,?yet?from?those?flames
象一个洪炉的烈火四射,但那火焰

No?light,?but?rather?darkness?visible
却不发光,只是灰蒙蒙的一片,

Served?only?to?discover?sights?of?woe
可以辨认出那儿的苦难景况,

Regions?of?sorrow,?doleful?shades,?where?peace
悲惨的境地和凄怆的暗影。

And?rest?can?never?dwell,?hope?never?comes
和平和安息决不在那儿停留,

That?comes?to?all;?but?torture?without?end
希望无所不到,唯独不到那里。

Still?urges,?and?a?fiery?deluge,?fed
只有无穷无尽的苦难紧紧跟着

With?ever-burning?sulphur?unconsumed:
永燃的硫磺不断的添注,不灭的火焰,洪水般向他们滚滚逼来。

Such?place?Eternal?Justice?had?prepared
这个地方,就是正义之神为那些

For?those?rebellious,?here?their?prison?ordained
叛逆者准备的,在天外的冥荒中

In?utter?darkness,?and?their?portion?set
为他们设置的牢狱,那个地方

As?far?removed?from?God?and?light?of?Heaven
离开天神和天界的亮光

As?from?the?Center?thrice?to?th'?utmost?pole.
相当于天极到中心的三倍那么远。

O how unlike the place from whence they fell!
啊,这里和他所从坠落的地方比起来是何等的不同呀!

There the companions of his fall, o'erwhelmed
和他一起坠落的伙伴们

With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous fire,
淹没在猛火的洪流和旋风之中,

He soon discerns, and weltering by his side
他辨认得出,在他近旁挣扎的,

One next himself in power, and next in crime,
论权力和罪行都仅次于他的神魔,

Long after known in Palestine, and named
后来在巴勒斯坦知道他的名字叫

Beelzebub. To whom th' Arch-Enemy,
别西卜。这个在天上叫做撒旦的

And thence(之后) in Heaven called Satan, with bold words
首要神敌,用豪言壮语打破可怕的

Breaking the horrid silence thus began.
沉寂,开始向他的伙伴这样说道:

“If thou beest(=be) he; But O how fallen! how changed
“是你啊;这是何等的堕落!

From him, who in the happy Realms of light
何等的变化呀!你原来住在

Clothed with transcendent brightness didst outshine
光明的乐土,全身披覆着、

Myriads though bright: If he whom mutual league,
无比的光辉,胜过群星的灿烂;

United thoughts and counsels, equal hope,
你曾和我结成同盟,同心同气,

And hazard in the glorious enterprise,
同一希望,在光荣的大事业中

Joined with me once, now misery hath joined
和我在一起。现在,我们是从

In equal ruin: into what Pit thou seest
何等高的高天上,沉沦到了

From what height fallen, so much the stronger proved
何等深的深渊呀!他握有雷霆,

He with his Thunder: and till then who knew
确是强大,谁知道这凶恶的

The force of those dire arms? yet not for those
武器竟有那么大的威力呢?

Nor what the Potent Victor in his rage
可是,那威力,那强有力的

Can else inflict(给予打击) do I repent or change,
胜利者的狂暴,都不能叫我懊丧,或者叫我改变初衷,

Though changed in outward luster; that fixed mind
虽然外表的光彩改变了,

And high disdain, from sense of injured merit,
但坚定的心志和岸然的骄矜

That with the mightiest raised me to contend,
决不转变;由于真价值的受损,

And to the fierce contention brought along
激动了我,决心和强权决一胜负,

Innumerable force of spirits armed
率领无数天军投入剧烈的战斗,

That durst dislike his reign, and me preferring,
他们都厌恶天神的统治而来拥护我,

His utmost power with adverse power opposed
拿出全部力量跟至高的全力对抗,

In dubious Battle on the Plains of Heav'n,
在天界疆上做一次冒险的战斗,

And shook his throne. What though the field(战场,战役) be lost?
动摇了他的宝座。我们损失了什么?

All is not lost; the unconquerable will,
并非什么都丢光:不挠的意志、

And study of revenge, immortal hate,
热切的复仇心、不灭的憎恨,

And courage never to submit or yield:
以及永不屈服、永不退让的勇气,

And what is else not to be overcome?
还有什么比这些更难战胜呢?

That Glory never shall his wrath or might
他的暴怒也罢,威力也罢,

Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace
决不能夺去我这份光荣。

With suppliant knee, and deify his power
经过这一次战争的惨烈,

Who from the terror of this Arm so late
好容易才使他的政权动摇;

Doubted his Empire, that were low indeed,
这时还要弯腰屈膝,向他哀求怜悯,拜倒在他的全力之下,

That were an ignominy(耻辱) and shame beneath
那才真正是卑鄙、可耻,

This downfall; since by fate the strength of Gods
比这次的沉沦还要卑贱。

And this Empyreal substance cannot fail,
因为我们生而具有神力,秉有轻清的灵质,不能朽坏,

Since through experience of this great event
又因这次大事件的经验

In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced,
我们要准备更好的武器,

We may with more successful hope resolve
更远的预见,更有成功的希望,

To wage by force or guile eternal war
用暴力或智力向我们的大敌

Irreconcilable, to our grand Foe,
挑起不可调解的持久战争。

Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy
他现在正自夸胜利,得意忘形,

Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven.
独揽大权,在天上掌握虐政呢。”

So spake th' apostate angel, though in pain,
背叛的天使这样说了,虽忍痛说出

Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep despair:
豪言壮语,心却为深沉的失望所苦。

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