中华思想文化术语 | “尚同”英语怎么说?

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尚同
Conform Upwardly?

指是非标准同一于上级统治者。“尚同”是墨家的基本主张之一。墨子 认为,在没有国家、政治之时,人们会因为是非标准的混乱而导致相互非 议、争斗,造成彼此之间的伤害。因此主张立贤能之人为天子及各级官吏, 所有人的言行是非标准皆服从于上级,并最终同一于天子;天子则服从于上 天的要求。墨家认为“尚同”是实现天下大治的重要手段。
This term means conforming to the superior in applying standards for right and wrong. It is one of the basic positions of the Mohist school. Mozi believed that in the absence of a state and political power, confusion over right and wrong would give rise to conflict and fighting, causing harm to the antagonists.Therefore, he held that worthy and talented men should be the Son of Heaven and his officials at various levels. Everyone should adopt their superior’s standards for judging right and wrong in words and deeds, and ultimately follow the ruler’s standards. The sovereign ruler himself should submit to Heaven’s will. The Mohists believed that conforming upwardly was an important means to ensure great order under heaven.

引例 CITATION

  • 上之所是,必亦是之。上之所非,必亦非之。己有善,傍荐之。上有过, 规谏之。尚同乎其上,而毋有下比之心。 (《墨子·尚同中》) (上位者所肯定的,必须也加以肯定。上位者所否定的,必须也加以否定。 自己有好的主张,就想法进谏给上位者。上位者有过错,就规劝他。是非标 准都同一于上位者,而不要有与下位者比附的想法。)
    What your superior affirms, you must also affirm. What your superior rejects, you must also reject. If you have a good idea, manage to go to your superior and recommend it. If your superior commits an error, admonish him and remonstrate. Upwardly you should conform to your superior, not to your subordinates? (Mozi)

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