英译中国现代散文选 | 廖沫沙 《师说》解

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《师说》解
My Interpretation of On the Teacher

年过五十的老先生,大概总读过韩愈的《师说》。这篇文章里很有几句话值得今天当老师和学生的想一想。例如他说:
Elderly people aged over fifty must have read Han Yu's On the Teacher. Quite a few remarks in this essay are worthy of contemplation by present-day teachers and pupils. Take the following for example:

“孔子曰:三人行,则必有我师。是故弟子不必不如师,师不必贤于弟子。闻道有先后,术业有专攻,如是而已。”
"Confucius says: 'Out of three men, there must be one who can teach me.' So pupils are not necessarily inferior to their teachers, nor teachers better than their pupils. Some learn the truth earlier than others, and some have special skills — that is all."

韩愈的原意,是因为自己接受了门徒,为了抵制当时舆论的非议,所以写这篇文章自解。他的意思是说,自己虽是作了先生,并不一定样样贤于弟子,从他学的人也不一定不如他,人们不必因此而大惊小怪。本来,只要是一个人闻道在先,不管他是什么人,都可以拜为老师。要学习的是知识,用不着问他“生乎我前”或“生乎吾后”;也用不着要求老师精通百般武艺,只要他有一门是比自己好的,就应该认他为师,向他学习。这是讲给求学的人听的。但也可以反过来讲给“传道授业解惑”的老师们听。
Han Yu wrote this essay to defend himself against the attack of his time on his having accepted some disciples. In his opinion, having disciples was not something to be surprised at because, as a teacher, he was not necessarily better than his disciples in every way, nor his disciples always inferior to him. As a matter of fact, one who has learned the truth earlier than you, no matter who he is, should be acknowledged as a teacher. You need not ask whether he was born before or after you because what matters is the knowledge that he can impart to you. Nor should you presume him to be omniscient. So long as he excels you in one respect, you should learn from him and call him your teacher. This advice of mine is addressed to pupils, and teachers as well — teachers whose duty it is "to pass on the truth, impart knowledge and dispel ignorance".

“弟子不必不如师,师不必贤于弟子”,这是一个真理,并不是瞎说。老师和学生并没有什么不可逾越的界限。在这门知识上老师高于学生,在另一门知识上,学生也可能高于老师;今天老师高于学生,明天学生可能高过老师。这也是辩证法,对立面的统一。老师和学生可以互相转换,学生要向老师学习,老师也有需要向学生学习之处。
"Pupils are not necessarily inferior to their teachers, nor teachers better than their pupils" — that is a truth, not a fallacy. There is no impassable demarcation line between teacher and pupil. While a teacher may be superior to his pupil in one branch of knowledge, the latter may be superior to the former in another. While the teacher may be superior to his pupil today, the latter may be superior to the former tomorrow. That demonstrates the law of dialectics and the unity of opposites. A kind of interplay exists between teacher and pupil. The pupil should learn from his teacher, but sometimes there may also be something the teacher has to learn from his pupil.

《礼记》的《学记》有一段著名的话,意思也和这相近:“虽有佳肴,弗食,不知其旨也。虽有至道,弗学,不知其善也。是故学然后知不足,教然后知困。知不足,然后能自反也。知困,然后能自强也。故曰:教学相长也。‘说命’曰:‘学半’。其此之谓乎!”《礼记》的话着重在自反自强,不如韩愈说得更彻底。但是它所说的“教然后知困”,“教学相长”,所引的“学半”(就是说教学各居其半,相反而相成),就是在今天说来,也还是颠扑不破的。
A similar idea is expressed by the following well-known passage quoted from Xueji (The Subject of Education), a chapter of the ancient book Liji (The Book of Rites): "However nice the food may be, if one does not eat it, he does not know its taste; however perfect the doctrine may be, if one does not learn it, he does not know its value. Therefore, when he learns, one knows his own deficiencies; when he teaches, one knows where the difficulty lies. After he knows his deficiencies, one is able to examine himself; after he knows where the difficulty lies, one is able to improve himself. Hence, 'teaching and learning help each other;' as it is said in Yue Ming, 'Teaching is the half of learning.'" The above quotation from Liji, which lays emphasis on self-examination and self-improvement, is less thoroughgoing than what Han Yu says about education. Nevertheless, its remarks such as "When he teaches one knows where the difficulty lies", "Teaching benefits teachers as well as pupils" and "Teaching is the half of learning" (a quotation meaning teaching and learning are opposite and complementary to each other) all remain irrefutable to this day.

做先生的必然同时做学生,或者首先做学生,像马克思所说的“教育者必先受教育”,这个道理说来很浅显,但是人们在实际生活中却很不容易承认。特别是当老师当久了的人,或者像韩愈所说的“术业有专攻”的人,就很不容易接受这个辩证法。
To be a teacher, one must at the same time be a student, or be a student first, just as Carl Marx says, "Educators must themselves be educated first." Though this is plain truth, yet people in their practical life seldom recognize it. It is especially hard for teachers of long standing or those with "special skills", as Han Yu says, to look at this matter dialectically.

老师们不容易接受这个道理,倒也事出有因。“弟子不必不如师,师不必贤于弟子”,虽是封建思想的代表者韩愈所提出来的一个观点,但是在封建时代却并不通行。正好相反,“天地君亲师”,在封建时代,老师是同“天地君亲”在一起,居高而临下,弟子哪里能同老师上下平等而又矛盾统一呢?老师毕竟是老师,师道尊严,神圣不可侵犯,弟子毕竟是弟子,怎可以超过老师?这个观点相沿成习。
It is not without reason or cause that teachers fail to be readily receptive to the above-mentioned concept. The viewpoint "Pupils are not necessarily inferior to their teachers, nor teachers better than their pupils", though put forward by Han Yu, himself a feudal-minded scholar typical of his time, was by no means popular in the feudal age. On the contrary, as teachers were ranked high up along with "Heaven, Earth, Sovereign and Parents" as objects of worship in the feudal age, pupils could never be on an equal footing with their teachers to form a unity of opposites. After all, a teacher was a teacher. His teaching profession was dignified, sacred and inviolable. A pupil was a pupil. He was never expected to surpass his teacher. The practice has come down from the past and become customary.

新的师生关系,倒真像韩愈所说的,是“不耻相师”。就是互为老师,互为学生,彼此平等,不分尊卑,真正是“道之所存,师之所存”,谁有学问谁就是老师。
The new relationship between teacher and pupil should be that of, in the words of Han Yu, "not (being) ashamed to learn from each other." That is to say, teacher and pupil should teach each other and learn from each other. They should teach each other as equals regardless of seniority, so that, as Han Yu says, "Whoever knows the truth can be a teacher."

从学生方面来说,应该有“道之所存,师之所存”的尊重真理的精神;从老师方面来说,也应该像孔夫子那样,有一点“三人行,则必有我师”的雅量。
Pupils should show the spirit of respecting the truth, learning from whoever knows. Teachers should be so open-minded as to be ready to learn from anyone who knows, just as Confucius says, "Out of three men, there must be one who can teach me."

韩愈援引孔子的先例,作出判断说,“圣人无常师”。这句话的意思,是说真正聪明有学问的人,没有一定的老师;见人有学问,不管是谁,就认他为师。我想还得给他添一句:“师亦无常道,”就是当老师的并不经常等于真理。一个当老师的人,既要勇于坚持自己的真理,又要勇于承认自己的非真理。要保持师位的,不妨试一试这条方案,同学生们一道来为科学真理奋斗。
Han Yu, going by Confucius' teaching, asserts that "a sage has no definite teacher", meaning that a really wise and learned person has no fixed teacher and that he learns from whoever knows. I think I may as well add, "No teacher is all-knowing," meaning that no teacher is infallible. A teacher should have the courage not only to hold firmly to the truth but also to admit his mistake. All devoted teachers might as well put this into practice so that they can strive, together with their pupils, for scientific knowledge and the truth.

在另一方面,当学生的也应当了解;既然师和弟子的关系并不以师必贤于弟子、弟子必不如师为条件,那末,今天的学生在看到老师的某一方面的短处以后,也就不应该马上得到结论说,老师再不能作老师了。某一方面的短处并不等于一切方面的短处;反之,某一方面的长处也并不等于一切方面的长处。今天的学生担负着重大的使命,应该深切地认识自己知识的还很有限,必须虚心地向一切有所知、有所长的人学习,特别是向“术业有专攻”的老师们学习!这就是我的《师说》解。
On the other hand, however, pupils should also understand this: when they discover a teacher's weak point in a certain respect, they should not jump to the conclusion that he is no longer qualified as a teacher, because the weak point in one respect does not mean the weak point in all respects and, likewise, the strong point in a certain point does not mean the strong point in all respects. Students of today, shouldering a great historical task, should deeply understand how limited their knowledge is and how important it is for them to learn modestly from all those who have knowledge and strong points, especially teachers who "have special skills"! That is all I can say about On the Teacher.

说明

现代著名杂文家廖沫沙(1907—1990)的这篇短文写于1959年1月,旨在推动当时社会上正在进行的教学改革。文章虽然题为《〈师说〉解》,却并不止于解说,而是借题发挥,阐述新时代应有的师生关系,其论点在今天不无参考价值。

注释

①题目《〈师说〉解》所指实际上不限于解说,而是读后感,发挥作者自己的感想。因此除译为My Interpretation of On the Teacher外,也可译为Thoughts about On the Teacher。

②“弟子”译为pupils,因pupils虽通常指学童,如中、小学生,但与教师并用时,就不仅限于学童,却泛指“弟子”、“门生”,包括“大学生”在内,如:teacher and pupil、the master musician's pupil、one of the professor's pupils。

③“‘礼记’”译为Liji (The Book of Rites),儒家经典之一,亦称《小戴礼记》,为秦、汉以前各种礼仪论著的选集,相传由西汉戴圣编辑成书,是研究中国古代社会情况、儒家学说和文物制度的参考书。

④“《学记》”译为Xueji (The Subject of Education),为篇名,杂记秦、汉以前贵族的教育制度、教学内容和方法,是中国古代教育史上比较有价值的教育论著。

⑤‘说(yuè)命’,又称《兑命》,为《尚书》篇名,译为Yue Ming。

⑥“学半”也作“学(xiào)学(xué)半”,其中“(xiào)”意同“教”,全句作“教与学各占一半”解,即教人时才知道有困难,要学习,这样就等于学习的一半了。

⑦“当老师当久了的人”译为teachers of long standing,其中of long standing的意思是“工龄长的”或“老资格的”。

⑧“老师们不容易接受这个道理”译为teachers fail to be readily receptive to...,其中readily作quickly或easily解;receptive to/of义同willing to accept。

⑨“援引孔子的先例”译为going by Confucius' teaching,其中going by是成语,作“依照”、“遵循”解,如:We have a precedent to go by(我们有先例可援)。又,“先例”指“孔子的教导”,译为Confucius' teaching。

⑩“要保持师位的”意即“忠于(或热爱)教职的老师们”,故译为All devoted teachers。

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