翻译研究 | “基层干部”英语怎么说?

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近日,国内官方媒体的一篇报道将“基层干部”译为primary-level cadres: President Xi Jinping on Friday visited Beijing's primary-level cadres ?and residents in downtown neighborhoods ahead of the Spring Festival。

翻译研究 | “基层干部”英语怎么说

Primary这个词最主要的意思是“重要的、首要的”,因此primary-level ?cadres会让人误以为这些官员身居高位,与“基层干部”的意思恰恰相反。primary也不是没有类似“基层”的意思,不过仅指某一行业的一线员工。

医疗卫生领域有一个概念是primary care,中文译为“初级医疗”或“基层医疗”,社区医院就是primary care的一部分。一段更详尽介绍primary care的文字

Most people are very familiar with primary care. This is your?first and most generalized stop for symptoms and medical concerns.

For instance, you may see your primary care doctor when you notice a new symptom or are concerned that you contracted acold, the flu, or some other bacterial or viral disease. You may also seek out primary care for a broken bone, a sore muscle, a skin rash, or any other acute medical problem.

Also, primary care is typically responsible for coordinating your care among specialists and other levels of care.

因此,primary指“基层”时特指医疗卫生领域,仅用于primary care的语境(如primary care provider),不能扩大到任何行业的基层工作者,也就不能用来指“基层干部”。

翻译“基层”,可能会想到grassroots这个词,国内官方媒体也有这么做的,比如这个文章标题:Grassroots officials laud new harvest festival。grassroots这么使用没有问题。

除了grassroots外,还可以用rank and file。根据《韦氏词典》,这里rank and file对应的解释是the individuals who constitute the body of an organization, society, or nation as distinguished from the leaders,例句包括:Since the 1940s, Republicans have branded themselves the party of free trade, while Democrats—especially rank and file officials and congressmen—have more often been the party of protection。

最后说一下cadre。根据《柯林斯词典》,cadre意为In some political parties, especially the Communist Party, a cadre is a?party worker or official,可见,cadre政治性较强,特指党员工作者或官员。需要注意的是,“基层干部”不一定都是党员。本文第一段提到的新闻报道中,习近平主席首先慰问的地点是北京市公安局,而公安局并非基层党组织,不宜用cadre概括这些地方的工作人员。考虑到“干部”只是与“群众”,即resident相对,不一定就是official,所以这里用包含范围比cadre更广的personnel可能更好一些。

(本文转载自微信公众号:中国翻译研究院)

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